In various ways "homo religiosus " builds different myths, rites, and beliefs out from the universal symbols. The need to gain favor, on the other hand, leads to the obsequious pursuit of ever more exalted terms of praise (and abject means of self-abasement), culminating in iconoclasm, monotheism, and an insistence on mystery. The sacred power, he concludes, derives from the clan itself. Explain the concept of Protestantism in the light of economic development. We have no means to know if this or something else is what was actually thought by the primitives. new york: norton, 1950. freud, sigmund. Discuss its various elements. Later, Victorian anthropologists like Edward Tyler, James Frazer, and Herbert Spencer likewise adopt a fundamentally intellectualist explanation of religion. They are based variously on ideas human social structures, emotions, or cognition. first principles. minneapolis, minn.: fortress press, 1999. douglas, mary. new york: norton, 1975. geertz, clifford. (iii) Some hostile Magic checking it in the way. Failure of Magic is due to Magician’s wrong inferences about a mystical link between various objects. Hume believed that these two facets of anthropomorphism, that it provides both familiarity (explanation) and the possibility of gaining favor (control), result in opposed tendencies in religion. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list. Examine the nexus between religion and politics of the state. In his pithy phrase, "Ignorance is the mother of devotion" (p. 75). However, the date of retrieval is often important. Hume's theory explains religion in intellectual terms: as an account of the unknown causes at work in the natural and social worlds. Religious phenomenon. It includes the study of the relation of…, private religion In conventional sociological terms, religion is a public activity involving communal practices (such as worship and sacraments), and…, Religion, Naturalistic Reconstructions of, Religion in Scandinavia and Eastern Europe, Religion in Mexico, Catholic Church and Beyond, Religion in Canada: A Historical Survey, 1500 to the Present, Religion, Western Perceptions of Traditional Religions, Religion, Western Perceptions of World Religions, Religion, Western Presence in Southeast Asia, Religion, Western Presence in the Pacific, Religion: Indigenous Peoples' View, South America, https://www.encyclopedia.com/education/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/religion-theories. They see him both explaining religion in terms of the humans who create it, and treating humanity as a religious entity. As Wayne Proudfoot makes evident in Religious Experience (1985), religious feelings are constituted by the subject's implicit commitment to a religious explanation of their cause and a religious description of their object. Sometimes they naïvely assume that extant religious beliefs or practices must serve some beneficial purpose. Specifically religious concepts (as opposed to folklore, myths, etc.) Social scientists generally v…, Psychology of Religion Society requires a periodic strengthening of the social bond through communal activity that reinforces collective feelings and ideas. 20 Dec. 2020 . journal of the royal anthropological institute 88 (1958): 147–164. Explain the intellectualist theories of religion. It produced different and warring "religions" (i.e., conceptions of piety and worship), justified by competing criteria of religious authority. Many twentieth-century anthropologists and sociologists adopt functionalism as an explanatory paradigm, but employ it uncritically. Explain the concept of Protestantism in the light of economic development. religious experience. It represents "an extension of the field of people's social relationships beyond the confines of purely human society," an extension "in which the human beings involved see themselves in a dependent position vis-à-vis their non-human alters" (pp. They possess superior powers and control destiny of human beings. In his opinion grand natural objects gave people a feeling of the infinite as well as acted as symbols of the infinite. Religions are thus systems that provide parameters within which people interpret and try to influence the world and attempt to explain the inexplicable. Elster, nevertheless, rightly criticizes the all too frequent assumption in social scientific theory that unintended beneficial effects provide sufficient explanation for their cause. Inverting his definition of religion, Durkheim ultimately claims that the uniting of the community explains the beliefs and practices about sacred things. Unlike Max Muller, Herbert Spencer and Edward Tylor focused their attention on Religious behaviour of the primitives. Religion has … Compare and contrast between Bhakti and Sufism. False assumption because you can have synchronic religion because you can have animism and polytheism developing at the same time at different parts of the world, several different things are happening at the same time. In the service of religious polemic, early modern thinkers devised canons of inquiry and argument that were independent of religious presuppositions. Encyclopedia of Science and Religion. Ideas about the origin and development of religion were initially based on the reports of missionaries and adventures about the nature of religion among the primitives. One should ground explanations of social facts in sociology, or a theory of society. INTRODUCTION Anthropological theories of religion are diverse. See also Freud, Sigmund; Hume, David; Mysticism; Neurotheology; Sociology. Sigmund Freud (1856–1939) and Karl Marx (1818–1883) both authored prominent humanistic theories of religion with scientific or quasi-scientific pretensions. new york: basic books, 1973. guthrie, stewart. Discuss the social significance of pilgrimages. As a matter of fact, the concept of Soul and the concept of spirit are quite different. The emergent theoretical study of religion had its inception in apologetics and polemics. They feel acted on by a mighty moral force to which they are subject, and, not surprisingly, they imagine it external to them. the varieties of religious experience (1902). Religion-as-theory and religion-as-communion represent two poles or aspects of religion with varying relative salience depending on circumstance. The general term religion reflects this differentiation. stanford, calif.: stanford university press, 1956. james, william. This website includes study notes, research papers, essays, articles and other allied information submitted by visitors like YOU. 31–32). Despite Hume's interest in the social consequences of religion, his theory of the origin of religion completely neglects social considerations. According to Swanton (1924:358-68) Tylor has advanced unprovable casual theories. To this extent, Feuerbach's theory is humanistic. 2. This theory was superseded by the ghost theory and the soul theory. Despite this diversity, he claims, all particular religious phenomena coincide in "the belief of invisible, intelligent power" (p. 21). Religion is the sigh of the creature overwhelmed by misfortune, the senti ment of a heartless world, and the soul of soulless conditions. purity and danger. This commitment belies the alleged priority of religious feeling to religious belief. the mystical mind: probing the biology of religious experience. Durkheim's functional explanation of religion arguably does include a feedback loop: The effects of religious rites (strengthened social bonds) maintain their cause (religion) precisely because social bonds produce religion. Two features of Durkheim's theory influenced later twentieth-century theories profoundly. mark musa. In his book, The Principles of Sociology, Spencer (1876-96) discuss primitive beliefs. Religion, as a social fact, can help explain the individual's religious feelings better than the individual's religious feelings can explain religion. "self-evidence." They gain this additional salience from their "aggregate relevance" to important social and moral processes. They too see religion in conflict with science. One of the major theories that he outlined in the work was ‘animism’ – the idea that all religions evolved from a rudimentary belief in spirits animating the world. The comparative study of religion formed a central building block of anthropology as the discipline emerged in the nineteenth century and early twentieth century. They observed sun, moon, clouds and stars come and go, and got the notion of visible and invisible conditions. For example, Depresses (1760) advanced a theory that religion had its origin in fetishism (belief in magical fetishes or objects): The Portuguese sailors had 30 reported that the coastal Negro tribes of West Africa worshipped inanimate things and animals. Freud asserted that religion is a largely unconscious neurotic response to repression. Only a standpoint that abstracts from contested religious criteria could resolve such a dispute. ." In composing a "natural history" of religion, Hume brings religious phenomena within the purview of science. The social function of religion manifests itself as it “serves as the carrier of social sentiments providing symbols and rituals that enable people to express the deep…show more content… Answer the following questions in about 250 words each. Religious theories explain religion in terms of a religious object, entity, force, or ultimate reality. Marett (1866-1943), another disciple of Tylor, criticized the animistic theory. As an adult, Freud considered himself an atheist, but his Jewish background and upbringing and background played an important role in the development of his ideas. He owes much to Tylor but places magic in a phase anterior to belief in supernatural … Religion does not produce morality, intuitions about misfortune, or ritual. cambridge, uk: cambridge university press, 1984. feuerbach, ludwig. Eugene d'Aquili and Andrew Newberg present another case where the distinction between humanistic and religious theories breaks down. According to Tylor, experiences of death, disease, visions and dreams lead the primitives to think about the existence of immaterial power, i.e., the Soul. Taking inspiration from Durkheim's injunction that "we must know how to reach beneath the symbol to grasp the reality it represents and that gives the symbol its true meaning" because the "most bizarre or barbarous rites and the strangest myths translate some human need and some aspect of life, whether social or individual," many twentieth-century scholars interpret religious beliefs primarily as symbolic expressions of existential concerns (p. 2). This may well be correct. An intellectual is a person who engages in critical thinking, research, and reflection about the reality of society, who may also propose solutions for the normative problems of society, and thus gains authority as a public intellectual. , sigmund ; Hume, david ; Mysticism ; Neurotheology ; Sociology the! ’ or a theory of the infinite, it is created for the 's. 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