Ryegrass, (genus Lolium), genus of about 10 species of grass in the family Poaceae. Note that this species can be a weed in winter crops. Italian ryegrass. The culm is pale green, terete, glabrous, and unbranched. Name: Ryegrass - Annual (Lolium rigidum) Description: Annual self-regenerating aggressive winter-spring growing ryegrass. Suited to drier margin of ryegrass zone. Ryegrass: Scientific Name: Lolium perenne: Family: Poaceae: Longevity: Annual: Season: Cool: Origin: Introduced: Height: 25 - 80 cm: Flowers: Mar - Jun: Description: A common grass throughout our region and adapted to most soil types. Leaves are long and narrow, without hairs, are ribbed on the upper surface and have a shiny lower surface. Plant Description: Annual grass, up to 90 cm tall and forming tussocky clumps. In the Gulf Coast regions, reason productivity can be expected from November to May. The primary species found worldwide and used both for lawns and as a forage crop is perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne). Cereal ryegrass germinates at temperatures as low as 34° F, is also drought-resistant, and flourishes in light soils, where most ryegrasses have problems growing. Lolium perenne (Table 1) Lolium x boucheanumKunth (Table 2) - Refer Hybrid ryegrass fact sheet for details re description etc. Subordinate Taxa. Italian ryegrass, also called annual ryegrass, is an upright annual grass that behaves like a biennial or short-lived perennial. Both names essentially mean the same thing, and there really isn’t that much more to say about the name. For Wimmera ryegrass, the scientific name is Lolium rigidum … Plant Characteristics. It is the principal grazing grass in New Zealand where some 10 million kilograms of certified seed are produced every year. It consists of a flowering culm with alternate leaves about 1-3' tall. Lolium perenne L. Preferred Common Name. Common Name: Red Clover Scientific Name: Trifolium pratense Family: Fabaceae Annual ryegrass toxicity, ergot and herbicide resistance can be a problem with this species. The inflorescence (flowering stems) are flat and up to 300mm in length. (1779) Preferred Common Name. Ryegrass is ideally sown in late summer or spring. Scientific Name: Perennial Lolium Domain: Eukaryota Kingdom: Plantae; Phylum: Spermatophyta Subphylum: Angiosperms Class: Monocotyledonae How to Plant Ryegrass. [1], Lolium contains some species which are important grasses for lawns, and as pasture and for grazing and hay for livestock, being a highly nutritious stock feed. [12] Ryegrass pollen is also one of the major causes of hay fever. Tetraploid annual type; It often becomes naturalised in agricultural areas, along roadsides and near habitation, but also invades a wide variety of natural habitats. Annual ryegrass (L. rigidum) is one of the most serious and costly weeds of cropping systems in southern Australia, and herbicide resistance is a frequent problem. is a fungal body or sclerotium often found in many cereal grasses. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. The main purpose of having a scientific name is to have a same name accepted and used worldwide. Very strong cool season growth and nutritive value Hybrid ryegrass (short-lived type) 1. It is the principal grazing grass in New Zealand where some 10 million kilograms of certified seed are produced every year. Italian ryegrass; Other Scientific Names. Weed Tech 21: 477–482 (2006).doi 10.1614/WT-06-168.1", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Lolium&oldid=993752444, Pages using Tropicos template without author names, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 12 December 2020, at 08:26. Plant Characteristics. It is native to Europe, Asia and northern Africa, but is widely cultivated and naturalised around the world. Ryegrass should not be confused with rye, which is a grain crop. It is often used as a forage grass in winter pasture plantings and seeded in Bermudagrass pastures. 1753. The ergot of ryegrass (Lolium spp.) The flower spikelets grow in the angles of a zigzag rachis (flower stem). The tufted plants reach about 0.3 to 1 metre (1 to 3.3 feet) tall and have tough dark green leaves. Scientific name is the name conforming to the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN). A number of species are grown as forage and lawn grasses in temperate Eurasia and Africa, and both perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) and annual ryegrass (L. multiflorum) are important constituents of … This species is grown as a pasture grass and is also deliberately planted in recreation areas in the temperate regions of Australia. Typical yields of annual ryegrass are 2 to 6 tons/ac. The main purpose of having a scientific name is to have a same name accepted and used worldwide. Sowing/planting rates in mixtures 15-25 kg/ha (diploid cultivars); 20-40 (4n). Stems are 12 to 40 inches tall and pale green to yellowish. The different kinds have different uses. Like many cool-season grasses of the Poaceae, it harbors a symbiotic fungal endophyte, either Epichloë or its close relative Neotyphodium, both of which are members of the fungal family Clavicipitaceae. Tennis courts, including those at the All England Lawn Tennis and Croquet Club, the venue for Wimbledon, are planted with ryegrass. Ryegrass varies from the most persistent (perennial ryegrass) to the least persistent (annual ryegrass) and can be broadly categorised by how long they live or persist. It's easy to be fooled, so let's distinguish between the three types. Ryegrasses can be annuals or perennials. Lolium perenne ssp. Festuca perennis is the legitimate scientific name for annual ryegrass. English: English ryegrass; Italian ryegrass; perennial rye grass; Spanish: ballico perenne; raigras ingles; vallico; French: ivraie vivace; ray-grass anglais; Portuguese: azevem-vivaz; gazao The common name of this plant in Spanish is raigrás italiano. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. multiflorumor Lolium multiflorum) is an annual in the grass family (Poaceae). Phantom Annual Ryegrass. Italian Rye Grass Lolium multiflorum Grass family (Poaceae) Description: This grass is usually an annual, although sometimes it is a biennial or short-lived perennial. The scientific name of Italian Ryegrass is the botanical name or formal name. This clump forming grass spreads by seed and has a fibrous root system. The plant is often infected with a poisonous fungus (Neotyphodium species) that can be dangerous to grazing animals. [10][11], Some species, particularly L. temulentum, are weeds which can have a severe impact on the production of wheat and other crops. Updates? The leaves are shiny, especially on the back of the blade. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Lower stems and nodes are often purplish or reddish. Scientific Name and Common Name; Kingdom: Plantae – Plants Subkingdom: Tracheobionta – Vascular plants Superdivision: Spermatophyta – Seed plants Division: Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants Class Scientific Name Lolium perenne ssp. Preferred Scientific Name. The ergot body drops to the ground with the seed, lies dormant through the winter and produces millions of spores in the spring. Synonyms (former Scientific Names): Lolium perenne ssp. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Common Name: Annual Ryegrass Scientific Name: Lolium multiflorum Family: Poaceae Cool-Season Grass. The primary species found worldwide and used for both lawns and as a forage crop is perennial ryegrass(Lolium perenne). Corrections? Annual and Italian ryegrass These two ryegrass species are described together because they are used in similar situations, for their fast establishment and high winter - early spr… Suitable for oversowing into an established stand. Like many cool-sea… A number of species are grown as forage and lawn grasses in temperate Eurasia and Africa, and both perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) and annual ryegrass (L. multiflorum) are important constituents of pasture and lawn-seed mixtures used around the world. Ryegrass Scientific Name. aristatum . Scientific names of various grasses listed by common names in a convinient chart. Several former Lolium species now regarded as part of other genera: Castellia, Enteropogon, × Festulolium, Hainardia, Lepturus, Melica, and Vulpia. in Colombia or Kenya, ryegrass is grown above 2400-2500 m alt. It grows vigorously in winter and early spring. Sow into bared ground if direct drilling. Lolium perenne L. – perennial ryegrass. The most important cultivated temperate grasses. There is a large range of cultivars. Ryegrass, (genus Lolium), genus of about 10 species of grass in the family Poaceae. Naturalised in all Australian States. Lolium contains some species which are important grasses for lawns, and as pasture and for grazing and hay for livestock, being a highly nutritious stock feed. Annual ryegrass is hairless and has bright green, narrow leaves. Sow at 20-25kg/ha alone or 5-15kg/ha as part of a mix. Italian ryegrass (biennial type) 1. [13][14] Lolium is native to Europe, Asia and northern Africa, as well as being cultivated and naturalized in Australia, the Americas, and various oceanic islands. Glyphosate-resistant Lolium has been reported from Mississippi in 2006. The scientific name for annual or Italian ryegrass is Lolium multiflorum Lamarck (Munz, 1973). Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Lolium perenne var. Italicum . Lolium is a genus of tufted grasses in the bluegrass subfamily of the grass family. Annual ryegrass can be grazed when plants reach an approximate height of 6-8 inches. [3][4] It is often called ryegrass, but this term is sometimes used to refer to grasses in other genera. English: annual ryegrass; westerwold ryegrass; Spanish: ballico de Italia; … perennial ryegrass; International Common Names. The plants have extensive root systems and are useful for erosion control. multiflorum . It is a purplish black, banana-shaped, 0.25- to 0.75-inchlong body replacing a grain in the seed head. Perennial ryegrass is related to the turf grass known as annual ryegrass, but these two plants differ, too. Spikel… Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) is regarded as a serious threat to one or more natural vegetation formations i… Ryegrasses are naturally diploid, with 2n=14, and are closely related to the fescues (Festuca).[5][6][7][8]. The base (below ground) is often reddish purple in colour and seedlings exude a clear sap when crushed.Mature plants are erect and up to 900 millimetres (mm) in height. There is a large range of cultivars. Ryegrasses are also used in soil erosion control programs. Diploid ryegrass has a relatively small seed compared to tetraploid ryegrass and may be sown at a lighter rate. It is found throughout California to about 3300 feet (1000 m), except in deserts and the Great Basin and inhabits agricultural land and other disturbed places. multiflorum. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/plant/ryegrass, The Spruce - Annual Ryegrass Plant Information, United States Department of Agriculture - Ryegrass, rye grass - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). Lolium perenne var. Native Introduced Native and Introduced. Now, with that being said, annual ryegrass actually used to go by the name of Lolium multiflorum. Lolium italicum A. Braun; International Common Names. Scientific name — Secale Cereale, cereal ryegrass is noted for its late fall to early spring nutrient scavenging and grazing potential, and is taller and quicker-growing than wheat. Annual ryegrass is also called Italian ryegrass and is closely related to perennial ryegrasses. It has a wide ligule, long auricles and the emerging leaf is folded. Annual Ryegrass and Perennial ryegrass are very important for forage production or livestock production. Modern winnowing techniques now separate the seed from rye seed, but in earlier times contaminated rye flour was a health hazard. Legumes: White Clover, Red and Persian clovers. Lolium perenne, common name perennial ryegrass, English ryegrass, winter ryegrass, or ray grass, is a grass from the family Poaceae. Preferred Scientific Name. Lolium multiflorum Lam. Annual - Less than one year Italian - 1-2 years Short rotation - 2-5 years Perennial- 5 years 1. Developed to combine strengths of perennialand Italian ryegrasses, particularly increased cool season growth and increased nutritive value (eg water soluble carbohydrate). Often sown in mixtures with white clover. Also grown in subtropical areas of Australia, S America and S Africa; in the tropics, ryegrass is grown to a limited extent at high altitudes, e.g. Click below on a thumbnail map or name for subspecies profiles. Species Plantarum 1: 83, https://grdc.com.au/resources-and-publications/resources/iwmhub/common-weeds-of-cropping/annual-ryegrass, "Nandula VK, Poston DH, Eubank TW, Koger CH and Reddy KN, Differential response to glyphosate in Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) populations from Mississippi. Italian ryegrass and perennial ryegrass can hybridize, result… Sowing/planting rates as single species Pasture: 25-30 kg/ha (diploid cultivars); 20-40 (4n) Lawn: 1-2 kg/100 sqm Parks, rehabilitation or revegetation single species: 75 kg to 100 kg per hectare. The scientific name of Perennial ryegrass is Lolium Perenne, and the scientific name of annual ryegrass is Lolium Multiflorum. Lightly harrow and roll to improve germination. Omissions? multiflorum ← → Other Common Names: annual ryegrass. Italian ryegrass and a related species, perennial ryegrass, Lolium perenne, are the two most common weedy ryegrasses in California. Darnel (L. temulentum), also known as poison ryegrass or tare, is considered a noxious weed in many areas. Lolium multiflorum is the scientific name for annual ryegrass while Lolium perenne is the scientific name for the perennial ryegrass. [15], World Checklist of Selected Plant Families, "Horticulture Hotline: To rye or not to rye - it's that lawn season again", Linnaeus, Carl von. The common name of this plant in Spanish is Lolium perenne. There's more than one kind of ryegrass; in fact, three different types of grasses contain \"rye\" in their names. In the northern part of the state, productivity is seen from mid-February to May. Lolium multiflorum . Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) is regarded as an environmental weed in New South Wales, Victoria and Western Australia. Scientific name is the name conforming to the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN). Ryegrasses are also used in soil erosion control programs. Native to Annual ryegrass is native to Southern Europe while perennial ryegrass is native to Europe, Asia, and northern Africa. Habit. Key Features. Other Common Name: Annual Rye-grass: Status: Native to the Mediterranean. Duration: Annual Stem Texture: Hairless/Smooth Growth Habit: Bunch grass, Grasses Season: Cool Distribution: 01 - Pineywoods, 02 - Gulf Prairies and Marshes, 03 - Post Oak Savannah, 04 - Blackland Prairies, 05 - Cross Timbers and Prairies, 07 - Edwards Plateau, 08 - Rolling Plains, 09 - High Plains, 10 - Trans-Pecos The plants are unrelated to cereal rye (Secale cereale). The Plants Database includes the following 2 subspecies of Lolium perenne . Grasses: Hybrid ryegrass. NOTE: Italian ryegrass (annual type) Cultivars of annual type Italian ryegrass are listed separately in the annualryegrass fact sheet NOTE: Hybrid ryegrass (long-lived type) Classed technically as hybrid ryegras… ... Scientific Name Lolium multiflorum. The scientific name of Perennial Ryegrass is the botanical name or formal name. As the name suggests, annual ryegrass is a short-lived grass used to provide quick color, short-term erosion control or temporary stability for a single season. 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